A belt conveyor has different components working synchronously towards achieving an optimal outcome. The common parts affixed in every other belted conveyor system are:
The conveyor belt
The belt is the primary component of the conveyor system, and forms the belt on which materials are transported. Conventionally, belts used within a conveyor system are grouped as Class A, B or B belts according to the British Standard Specification No.490.
- Grade A belts are crafted to withstand severe abrasion and cutting effect, thus useful in heavy duty tasks.
- Grade B belts on the other hand are designed to handle moderate abrasion and cutting conditions, while,
- Grade C belts are crafted to handle low abrasive and cutting conditions.
Conceptually, the different conveyor belts are designed for different purposes, and for use in different belted system, and are further classed as follows:
- Untreated light or heavy duty cotton belts (have canvas as a key component)
- Impregnated cotton belts (have canvas as a key component)
- Coated belts
- Reinforced belts
- Covered belts
- White finish belts
- Integral cleat belt
The drive unit
A belt conveyor’s drive unit consists of an electric motor, a dumping coupling and a stage-based 2 or 3 gearbox. In the drive unit subsystem, the gearbox is the most crucial and most sensitive subsystem that must always be handled with care.
A belt conveyor system consists of steel fabricated pulleys. With each pulley’s shell connected to the hubs on either end, the pulley system allows for effective transportation of any materials placed on the belt. To increase the friction between the pulley and the belt, rubber lagged pulleys are recommended.
These are seamless steel tubular rolls enclosed over the pulley heads, and are conventionally fitted on a stationary shaft, several seals and an anti-friction bearing system. The conventional idlers used in most belt conveyor systems are:
- Toughing idler
- Return idler
- Impact idler
- Toughing trainer
- Return trainer