The advantage of using high speed steel in turning tools
Tool bits are generally inexpensive and they are strong enough to be used for repairs and fabrication. Turning tools are made from high speed steel because to handle the heat that is generated from the cutting process without losing its hardness. There are also tool bits made from expensive materials like carbides, ceramics, diamonds and cast alloys that can perform cutting at high speeds but they tend to be brittle. When used in machining, tool bits made from high speed steel actually cuts the material instead of shearing it which is what happens when carbide tool bits are used. After high speed steel (HSS) has been developed in the second half of the 19th century, it became a better option to the carbon cutting tools. Its advantages over carbon steel became more significant after the improvements made over the years that provided superior red hardness to withstand heat and abrasion in production environments.
Angles on tool bits
The successful operation of the lathe and the quality of work that will be achieved are dependent upon the angles that form the cutting edge of the turning tools. Most tool bits are hand ground to a desired shape through a bench or pedestal grinder. The geometry of the cutting tool that includes its rake and relief angles must be properly ground into overall shape that will be determined by the preferences of the machinist. The shape of the tool bit can pointed, rounded, squared off or irregular but it should be properly ground for the material that will be machined.
Shapes of tool bits
The overall shape of the tool bits can be rounded or square as well as any shape as long as it has proper angles. Turning tools are identified through their functions such as turning or facing and whether they are roughing tools or finishing tools. Generally, the roughing tool has a radius that has been ground on its nose that is smaller than the radius of the finishing and general purpose turning tools. Shapes are useful for different lathe operations. A right-hand turning tool bit is shaped to be fed from right to left with the cutting edge on the left side and a face sloping away from the cutting edge. The left-hand turning tool bit is exactly the opposite because it is designed to cut when fed from left to right. This type of tool bit is used for machining that is close in to the right shoulder.